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Past Perfect Participle
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Author:  Dionysius [ Sun Apr 14, 2013 2:32 am ]
Post subject:  Past Perfect Participle


Can someone explain it to me.

I think that's what it's called, I'll double check later...

Author:  Pro Ecclesia Dei [ Sun Apr 14, 2013 6:05 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Past Perfect Participle

VirgoPotens wrote:

Can someone explain it to me.

I think that's what it's called, I'll double check later...

Usually it is just called the perfect participle. If I know to what you refer, that is. Maybe you mean the pluperfect? (Normally there is the future perfect, the perfect [also called the present perfect], and the pluperfect which could be called a past perfect)

Anyhow a participle takes the place of an adverb or adjective, or even a substantive. More specifically, it actually names something as taking part (part+cipere) in the action of the verb.

So amans vir is a loving man. Amans by itself could mean a lover. That is the present participle. Ens, for instance, meaning a being.

The perfect participle is the same in the perfect tense. Except that it is passive, not active, in form. Hence amatus does not mean "the one who has been loving" but "one who has been loved". The perfect participle in English can be either passive or active, but in Latin it is passive, except for deponents.

To explain more, the perfect tense is a present tense in that it names something from the perspective of the present, but as having been completed. I have run five miles. It thus conveys something like the past tense, but more specifically "I ran five miles" could be substituted, but doesn't mean exactly the same thing. Whereas the past perfect or pluperfect is conveys from the perspective of the past an act completed at that past time. "When I was twenty, I had written three books." The future perfect takes a future moment as the looking back point to a completed action. "By the time I am thirty, I will have written twenty books" So "When I was twenty, I had written three books (pluperfect or past perfect). This year I have written two books (perfect). By the time I am thirty I will have written twenty books (future perfect)."

Now latin has four participles (other participles in English would be conveyed in another way). These are the present active, amans "a lover, one who is loving, loving" , the future active amaturus "one who will love, about to love", the future passive amandus "one who will be loved, about to be loved", and the perfect participle amatus "loved or one who has been loved."

There is no pluperfect or past perfect participle.

The perfect participle is used by itself, like a noun or adjective, or as part of verb tenses. Hence the passive perfect uses it. Ego sum amatus. I have been loved. Or literally "I am one who has been loved" So the verb esse + the perfect participle makes the passive perfect tense. Likewise the future passive perfect is made in the same way, except esse is in the future tense, so "Ero amatus" I will have been loved. And the pluperfect passive is formed by the simple (not the perfect) past tense of esse with the perfect participle, so "Eram amatus" "I was loved" or literally "I was one who has been loved"

The perfect participle is also used in the passive periphrastic forms.

Author:  Dionysius [ Mon Apr 15, 2013 8:00 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Past Perfect Participle

Oh, it was Perfect Passive Participle.

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