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 Post subject: Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
PostPosted: Tue Feb 06, 2018 7:49 pm 
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Citizen
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The Infante Ferdinand was born in 1604. He was the son of King Philip III and Queen Margaret of Spain.
Ferdinand became Archbishop of Toledo and was created Cardinal. However, he was not ordained as a priest.
How was it possible he could have a high clerical position and not be ordained?


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 Post subject: Re: Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
PostPosted: Tue Feb 06, 2018 8:22 pm 
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lay_cardinal

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 Post subject: Re: Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
PostPosted: Tue Feb 06, 2018 8:33 pm 
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For centuries, bishops and cardinals were appointed largely on the advice of the local monarchs.

Bishops were not just religious figures, but political ones as well. Bishops held control over a large territory of land over which they were the feudal lord and were thus responsible for governing that region, including imposing taxes and being responsible for trying criminals and settling lawsuits between vassals.

As such, the bishops was a very important position in Medieval politics. This is why the Catholic monarchs were very interested in who was made bishop in his kingdom. As such, the monarchs usually nominated men who had proven themselves loyal to him in the past and whom they believed would prove loyal in the future.

Often, the king would nominate someone as a bishop who was a secular figure who had never been ordained, and there would have to be a quickie ordination to make the appointment valid. One famous example of a secular political figure who was made bishop is Talleyrand, who, before being made a bishop, had a reputation as a womanizer and he is known or suspected to have fathered at least 4 illegitimate children.

In the case of cardinals, until the reign of Pope John XXIII, there was no requirement that a cardinal be a bishop first. Therefore, in some circumstances, the king would recommend someone to be appointed cardinal who had never been ordained, and since ordination was not required for the post, there would no ordination.

Two very famous cardinals who served important roles within government were Cardinal Richelieu, who was essentially the Prime Minister (de facto Prime Minister because the title and position did not officially exist at that time) of France from 1624-1642 under Louis XIII. And his successor Cardinal Julian Mazarin who served the same function as Richelieu during the early reign of Louis XIV from 1642-1661.

Cardinal Mazarin was never ordained as a priest, and historians believe that he may have been married to the queen, Anne of Austria, the widow of Louis XIII and mother of Louis XIV.

You may know of Richelieu from Alexandre Dumas' novel 'The Three Musketeers' in which Richelieu serves as one of the main antagonists of the Musketeers. (But not THE main antagonist, that would be Milday DeWinter.) Dumas' portrayal of him is not historically accurate.
Cardinal Mazarin serves as a foil in the sequel '20 Years After' and the first half of the third book 'The Vicomte de Braggelone'. Dumas' portrayal of Mazarin is no more accurate than his portrayal of Richelieu.


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 Post subject: Re: Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
PostPosted: Wed Feb 07, 2018 7:15 pm 
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Obi-Wan Kenobi wrote:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lay_cardinal

In the article Crown-cardinal I learned that Henrique (Henry) I of Portugal was both a cardinal and King of Portugal. He was born as a Portuguese Infante (Prince).


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