The Kolbe Center on The Traditional Catholic Doctrine of Creation from my understanding of this article:http://www.kolbecenter.org/the-traditional-catholic-doctrine-of-creation/I don't expect any of your to read it all, but I simply wanted to discuss what I thought was a Catholic's freedom to subscribe to evolution.
It's my understand we can hold to evolution but it must not be at the expense of Catholic doctrines; such as Adam being a literal person.
Truth be told, I think before we even take up a question like this, it has to be admitted that the term "evolution" is too much of a moving target to really answer the question unequivocally. If by evolution you simply mean that God fashioned the body of the first man out of pre-existing matter that at one time was alive over a long period of time, then I see no problem. This would be the theory of common ancestry. But, when people invoke evolution, they are usually not talking merely about a generic idea of common ancestry, but about the mechanisms by which evolution could take place. And it is here where there is not only any scarce scientific evidence to hang your hat, but that you will find as many ideas as you will biologists. This is largely where metaphysical presuppositions are the main guiding force in developing a theory of what mechanisms could allow for the evolutionary process. So, the trick here is making a statement that "Yes, I think a Catholic is free to subscribe to "evolution" (an idea of common ancestry)" without it being received as "Yes, I think a Catholic is free to subscribe to "evolution" (a mechanism that is materialistic and requires no divine intervention or teleology.)
Lastly, usually absent from this discussion is the elephant in the room of the origin of life itself. Even though it is cleverly shielded from view, there is absolutely nothing in modern science to give us any explanation of the origin of life itself without divine intervention.
If I may I'd like to expand on your definition of evolution, for clarity, stop me if you disagree;
Evolution is not;
A statement about the existence of God.
A theory about the origin of life.
A theory of history, politics or sociology.
Nor claim things get "better" only that they are more adapted for the context in which they live
Rather Evolution is;
A theory about how new species develop over time from older species, through genetic information being modified slightly by each generations, in a large part due to natural selection which favors physical traits that are better for survival.
However you are write to say that "evolution" is sometimes lumped together with the materialist theories about the origin of life and the universe, Evolution per se, does not necessarily conflict with the Catholic Church.